Answer to Question 3

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(a)  The Boltzmann Factor is shown in the ring.

 

 

ln (Boltzmann factor)  = -((1.602 10-19 C 0.45 V) (1.38 10-23 J K-1 298 K)) = -(7.209 10-20 J 4.112 10-21 J) = -17.5

 

Boltzmann factor = e-17.5 = 25.1 10-9

 

 

(b) ib = 25.1 10-9 40 = 1.0 10-6 A = 1.0 mA